Sunday, February 13, 2011

Tucson Glory Hole Locations

Alternative rock (or architects who speak Latin)

(photos and drawings taken in Vendrell, Jaume Prat)

Oscar Tusquets has published Recently, an article entitled Country How wrong we both? on the water covering the Sagrada Familia. It sang the architect a mea culpa on behalf of his generation for his belligerence on the extreme end of the building. The article is well reasoned and put the finger on all aspects questionable the work, just to highlight the indisputable: the general case, the architectural concept, all the building and system is obviously the paradigm shift that represents the history of architecture: building both absolutely go periodically milestones that make a city where we have always been the main one in front of us, blessed also by millions of visitors each year who are trying to systematically look stupid precisely that. There are very few global architectural paradigms: the Sydney Opera, the Guggenheim Bilbao, and before the Empire State Building, Eiffel Tower, the Houses of Parliament in London. Little more. The Barcelona has always been neglecting both renounced to sell from the point of view and cultural institution, with entire intellectual elite that has systematically turned back. But.
central Nave Family Ssagrada (photo flickr)

But that comes from afar, Mr. Tusquets. Thing he knows better than anyone. And is that Modernism, regardless of his charisma and his drawing power has always had very bad press. The term itself is pejorative (as Li was also the impressionist, and still some others). The difference respect of Impressionism is precisely given by the fact that it is prestigious, has passed into history of art changed over and now is synonymous with prestige, high culture, the door to the twentieth century. Not so modern. In Catalonia live two distinct styles: the Novecentismo and Modernism. The first was the style of the classic Catalan bourgeoisie, sober, rooted in Ampurias ruins in the Roman ruins of Tarragona, in the Mediterranean and peaceful civilization. Pau Casals Noucentista is putting on the porch of his summer villa in Sant Salvador (Puig i Gairalt Antoni) a glass to the sea and opening to rear gardens, perfectly preserved, filled with awful sculptures of Josep Clara Llimona sublime. Modernism: the rapture, the exuberance, the new rich. The Indians returning home enriched by the slave trade. Textile mills, men out of nowhere, with no tradition or heraldry. A certain romanticism: writing Verdaguer, aboard an ocean liner owned by the Güell, L'Atlàntida. The Catalan origin set at the small shrines of the Pyrenees, dark, cold, wrapped in thick woods, rustic, robust, combined with the sensuality of the Arab conquerors, with Mudejar Teruel, with alien plant species imported by the Marquis Sama.
Josep Samà Fontserè and Marquis, Parc Sama: the precursor of Gaudi's Park Guell and Catalunña gateway to many exotic plant species thanks to the scholarship of its owner, the Marquis de Sama, converted for the occasion in botanical adviser Fontserè.
The differences between the two styles are, at constructive, very diffuse: the border is soft, flexible, and, except in extreme examples, often unidentifiable. Instead, ideological differences are abysmal, and have connoted modernism decisively relegated to a marginal position in Catalan architecture. Modernism is now seen as an outburst, as a style that boasts some arbitrary, capricious market. In some respects it is true: Gaudí built expensive. Very market. No more, but that Folger building the first roof garden of Catalonia Tecla Sala in Casal Sant Jordi, Pau Claris, or Francesc Cambo Florensa built to design gardens Rubió i Tudurí nearly fifty feet high in the middle of Via Layetana.
Adolf Florensa: Cambo home. Socket offices, two floors and luxurious garden villa two minutes walk from the Cathedral of Barcelona.

The novecentismo will become, almost without transition, rationalism: It would be another article to explore the transformation of the styles, the role of building walls composed charge, and relations between the architects to whom the start of the modern movement catches mature (Florensa, Folger, Puig) with younger activists (Torres Clave, Sert, Rodríguez Arias, Illescas, brothers Gairalt). The latter be concerned also for the dissemination of this architecture des a militant view, even belligerent and reactionary about what had been done so far, and create (or define or gloss that Le Corbusier developed simultaneously in Paris) a theory that can explain or justify their accomplishments. With all this, some modernist architects continue to give yours a position that has become marginal. Gaudi died on 25, but it's been years since lived retired, dedicated exclusively to the Sagrada Familia, who was visiting basis without expanding or trying out the limits it set. His death leaves an orphaned number of architects, yet continue to develop their work with competence, uncompromising. Its isolation, its limited distribution, its minority position will cause the weight of his work can not compete with the main trend, constantly fed by a significant number of thoughtful and talented minds.
The fate and evolution of the modern movement in Catalonia, with the Civil War through the post-institutional classicism, the conversion of some of the most significant members GATCPAC historicism, together with the (many) achievements of Modernist architects survivors demonstrate the inconvenient truth that Johnson and Russell Hitchcock reported in 1929 in the book The International Style: the Modern Movement is nothing more than another way. A more. A way not justified by his theory, not a finalist because of its tendency to make himself look like the culmination of the history of architecture, but its accomplishments. For the quality of its architects. Finally, competitive.
Raimon Duran Reynals: Aribau Street home, when GATCPAC

the fall of the horse: Raimon Duran Reynals. residential building in Diagonal, completed just after the Civil War.
The architect Josep Maria Jujol is in the midst of this storm. Some twenty years younger than Gaudi, his death not get it to work assiduously with him and opened his own studio side. It has nearly fifty years. Previously, its entry into the study of Gaudí has \u200b\u200brepresented a revolution. Revolution. To some extent we can say that is who makes Jujol Gaudí Gaudí. Explanation: The architect Gaudí had, give to the beginnings of his career (it would be a topic to explore, but probably give its collaboration with Martorell) a different way of working. Until then, studies in architecture were very reduced. Domènech i Montaner, for example, had very few assistants throughout his life: Guard, Oms, their children, little more. Drew Palau de la Musica Catalana all alone, with a record of only fifteen planes. The prospects are handwritten.
Gaudí worked with assistants. Constantly. Many, many at once: of Sugrañes Berenguer of Rubio i Bellver Puig Boada, Bayo Canaleta a completely integrated into your study as an Architect. Their role is fundamental in the architecture of the Master. Gaudi does not restrict, integrates up to make their works are a collage a juxtaposition of sensibilities integrated into a Wagnerian total artwork, and it does until the very end: the Bellesguard, for example, ceramic banks Sugrañes are shocking. Not only that, but never quite jell with almost shapeless mass of stone without devastating maladheridas over almost any solid surface, including fecal chutes.

Bellesguard Banks, photo by Josep Maria Alegre_ Artigas_Criticartt Beli
Mallorca Cathedral: choir moved against the walls, canopy and paintings (here invisible) Jujol, under the direction of Gaudí, all unfinished and provisional.

Jujol work otherwise. His entry into the study will shock the Master, overwhelmed by their exuberance. Gaudí Jujol like nobody understands, and his intervention was not based as much on the quality of their parts as in the integration, transitions (or, rather, lack thereof) of these into a coherent whole eats work as a continuous skin on the inside and out. Jujol was, is, an outstanding architect. In its own way is to Gaudí height, even to the extent that his talents do not add up, but clearly they multiply when they are together. Ultravirtuoso illustrator, model maker, paddle, locksmith, his enormous capacity for work overwhelms the entire study, which transforms and moves to gravitate around him. Jujol is the center and the margin, work with absolute independence, reporting only to the Master, juxtaposing the two architectures in a way simultaneously autonomous and interconnected mutual authorship until they lose it. Jujol make the facade of the Casa Batlló. Excluding balconies. Jujol will, indeed, the locksmith of the balconies at the Pedrera. Jujol make ceramic medallions and the bank Wavy Park Güell, completely changing the concept of what should be and, incidentally, invented the trencadís as we have received today: as an integrating mechanism waste work, patchwork, situational and episodic. Many of these achievements are due directly to his hand, or pictures or pallets, a man working without intermediaries. What characterizes the works is a power so wild that they eat the rest of the work. Gaudí created systems Jujol fillings. Jujol creating systems, Gaudí integrates, in a constant dialogue, an upward spiral that has made these works that are today.
A tram and Gaudí dies. After a short time Jujol married and the wedding trip will mark the rest of his work: Rome. Pear Jujol Baroque Rome: Bernini, Borromini, Bramante. San Pietro in Montorio and the tribute that the Master had done with him in the Palau Güell. La Fontana di Trevi. The architect will continue to own, outside the mainstream (which, of necessity, know-simply observe the stairwell of the house Planelles, the Diagonal, very close to both the Holy Family as the exquisite works Myrurgia , major work of Antoni Puig i Gairalt now trashed by Alonso and Balaguer. Planelles The house would be a great synthesis of everything, like the Master's own workshop, burned during the Civil War.
Antoni Puig i Gairalt, factory Myrurgia before the reform.

Jujol: Planells house (photo flickr)
After the war, the commissions are reduced in scale. Jujol retracts. Teaches at the Faculty of Architecture of Barcelona, \u200b\u200bwhere you will discover some bitterly ambivalent attitude of students and Federico Correa and Oriol Bohigas. Alfonso Milà still remember the anger that he was shot for not letting them hang in the Pedrera, sculpture of the Virgin Aleix Clapp had to leave the ground (collateral damage of the Tragic Week). It municipal architect in Sant Joan Despi, where he lived in the unique house built for his family, perfectly preserved at the house even more spectacular Serra-Xaus, with its turret turned forty-five degrees. Accept small orders marginal, regardless of official contacts, banded by the regime for Catalan, banded and incipient Catholic opposition. And it will be precisely the church who will give you the opportunity to perform their latest works.
Serra-Xaus tower to the left. On the right, house Jujol.

Serra-Xaus tower (photo flickr)
It's early in the 40: autarky, marginality, "black market (smuggled and sold on the black market). The country is devastated. In the village of Vendrell, capital of the Baix Penedès, is a Baroque church untouched by time and war. Need urgent restoration lies precisely in Jujol, which had already been occupying the building des 1931. This project perfectly exemplifies what Tusquets says in his article. Happens to be one of the minor works of an architect tired, almost finished, barely a trace of what once was. Is fully banded, forget all, and not even sure that the information signs of building too much emphasis is made to the author. Because Jujol is now the author of the church Vendrell, just as it can be Miralles Santa Caterina Market: appropriating the building, transforming a small base of operations and rereading it until it be something different from what had been until then.

Baroque catches
Catalonia in full economic decline. Many of his samples are minor works, traces of what this style was in other countries, cosmetic applied to basilical dimly lit, bare, austere, cold. When money was tattooed buildings are decorated with sculptures, with sumptuous covers. If not, were waiting for better times that never came.
Jujol rebukes the draft where it seems that the church would have left its architects. And without the least complex, it appropriates, transforms and leaves the church converted into a hybrid architecture that it shared with the Master and he has learned in Rome more what the circumstances and inspiration dictate.
church Vendrell, tattooed Jujol as original drawings.

The church is a perfect rectangle oriented east-southeast, free on three sides and attached to an illegal block by its long side to south-southwest. A west-northwest is the access, and dividing is shared by the city, an interesting and modest building, corner bending inward forming a nice little square, almost always in shade in summer. This is a square and less controlled, soulless except on market days, where someone has planted a eucalyptus horrible too close to the church. To the north the building overlooking a busy, narrow street where there are a number of businesses among which dog Badejo, the oldest bakery Vendrell, where he cooked a "coke" (a kind of cake) onion essential, part of a "cute" (cakes) Easter exceptional (for Passover). It is worth not to miss, either, his "vidre cokes" (extremely thin, crisp, crunchy, with sugar). Northwest on the square there was money to attach to building a home Baroque modest and interesting, almost reaches the height of the oculus above, in its day, seems to be the only source of natural light inside. A Southwest, playing the town hall, a chapel perpendicular to the main guideline. On the east side of the southwest wall is the sacristy. The church has a nave with side chapels very modest. Nothing more.
plant: the church in the center, this Municipal Market, City Hall Square to the northwest.

Even for someone
Jujol as detached as the architecture is money. A reform of a certain caliber will cost a significant amount, and not always be available all at once. So, first of all, the building is a system. A system implemented in phases, a system that will fill the existing to the extent that you can fill: if not, I will be nothing more than what they had. The main game rule Focusing the places of worship (not yet happened on Vatican II), enlighten, dignified and, from them, wrap the faithful to integrate them into the party in a hierarchical system that aims to unite officiants and participants leaving everyone in the side that touches is not revolutions can be ordered.
the main altar

The project is designed in phases: the main altar, side chapel large, sacristy, chapels. The mode of operation over the entire set will be exactly the same as if the system could grow and go beyond the main building, without limits or property, medians, and get to eat everything in the house Gaudi Calvet and open auctions, Pedrera in its waves covering the entire block, the Sagrada Familia des centripetal primary focus. The project will be, in the background, a Mat-Building analogous to those proposed in its day-X Team: a frame, a body designed to grow and shrink, leading implítico the embryo of future enlargements, never with a closed or defined, always in motion. Given here within four walls.
paintings-corner across the epidermis folded inside the building

This power system is a huge, wild, and it shows the very way being performed. Jujol seems to sabotage itself. The sculptures are fine art shop provincial, crappy, catalog, print product imitation of the tenth an unattainable model that comes precisely from the baroque imagery more English than Catalan, tortured and hyper. Are wrong, are bad. But its planning, its final position on the altar, their interconnection, the union of all in an integrated corpus transcends this lack of quality to fully give back. The belief system Jujol, fanatical Catholic, leads him to create a non-hierarchical cosmogony materials. Pig iron, coating of lime mortar, the frescos are as valid as gold, precious stones or sculpture by Michelangelo. An example: the restoration of the Cathedral of Mallorca The teacher believes that the choir, arranged through the church, it impedes the perception of space, and is preparing to dismantle it and attaching to the exterior walls. The choir is a part of the fourteenth century of exceptional artistic value and unique. Those responsible for it (with their own hands) will Sugrue and Jujol. Gaudí and called them his cats. Jujol decide in the first instance, "forget" the correct order of the parts when you reassemble, and, on appeal attacking the mixing and making new sculptures, and, above all, covering paintings that he made, without the least complex of hardwoods XIV century. A pulse. Without rethinking anything. Without any respect for the integrity of the original work but, simultaneously, with all the will and intent to transform, to adapt to the new position and the new project. Gaudí be delighted. The bishop of the cathedral's lay off all but Rubio, Malacca on the project until it reaches Barceló for his side chapel. This curriculum is not strange attitude: crappy sculptures integrated into sublime altar attached to a Baroque church.

late nineteenth century, concern written Gaudi left by the increased price of labor. The artisans were expensive and the works of the past again, and suggested the murals as the most effective and inexpensive to decorate the interior of the churches. Then, to lead by example: Bishop Torras i Bages asked whether it was appropriate that Josep Maria Sert pints Vic Cathedral, and again in writing, blessed the idea. The results are obvious to anyone who wants to travel there. Jujol followed that idea both inside and outside of some of their speeches at churches Vistabella fresco is painted almost entirely. The chapel of Rose, in Vallmoll, too, inside and out. Well, maybe the outside are graffiti (such as mental note, I just realized that this last chapel is not far from that Matisse did in Saint Paul de Vence). And what we want, Vendrell church is full of murals inside. These may be fresh on plaster or applied to altarpieces and sculptures in themselves, and, most interesting extensions of the same. When Jujol makes sculptures, altarpieces, when decorated chapels, their parts have no limits: they tend to merge with each other until it can seem that there is only one with many moments of intensity all the skin attached to the building. And the unions, the merger will take place precisely painting the gaps between interventions: friezes, arabesques, messages, appointments of the gospel. Latino and relevant phrases in Catalan. In the 40's!

And more: the altarpieces are not precisely attached to the walls are nailed to, the cross and seek the exterior walls with diamond windows to incorporate natural light. When that is not possible to put light bulbs. The diamond windows are not for nothing: it is the perfect way to pierce a wall of cargo is not ready to be bored. You save the threshold has not been reinforced with iron (I do not think they had too) and the two side corners nailed the load on the window in the solid panels that have not been touched. The central altar will have five of these holes, a central, major, and four sides, two and two. Burst on the south facade and give some joy to the soulless place. The side chapel has six smaller holes. In the Cathedral of Mallorca are also found, and are made with a bigger budget and, perhaps, by some experts palettes. The result will be to bite into the rock without any delivery. A goldsmith's work. Here, the walls plastered, are of masonry coarser and more poorly made, of So it is absolutely essential to frame the windows, thick stone frame that bind and absorb the irregularities of the walls. These frameworks (outside no budget for next to nothing) tend to merge with the rest. When you can not continue to sculpt, paint. Paints as well as sculpt. Relief disappears but the intensity and intent remain.
sketch in elevation of a side chapel

sketch in elevation of the main altar

outside a window in Vendrell
outside of a window Mallorca Cathedral, Gaudi-Jujol (photo fkickr. Josep Lluis Mateo?)

outside interventions are minimal: new windows, restoration of the facade oculus principal (reduced version of a rose) glazed with a new, relatively similar to that placed in the church of Pi in Barcelona, \u200b\u200bprobably nothing in the main portal, but neck is known, and, finally, the two most interesting features: the sculpture placed in the bell tower and small lateral platform cantilevered over the narrow street.

The sculpture is almost literally a carbon copy which was available on the tower of Mas Bofarull in Pallaresos els (which I will soon), which, according to local history, is a portrait the prettiest girl in town, trailer-mounted bearings and balanced to spin with the wind: a wind vane, go. In the church the pretty girl is transformed into an angel too beautiful but with a face of some bad milk, or endowed with one of those majesties they look like out of the Old Testament, where God was constantly angry and willing to whore any ten people who would to worship a calf. It seems bronze but obviously I have not been verified. The result of these sculptures is so quiet that, however much Vendrell go to twenty or thirty days a year forever, that I see (fortunately, the bell tower remains the tallest structure in the village), will not dare to swear if the sculpture is still a cock or not. I would say yes, but without being able to swear.

The lateral forum: Jujol, like Gaudi, does not know street alignments. The relationship between houses and pedestrians is complex and has to do with flows of transit modes and enter the upper structure of the house. Here the pavement of the church is about one meter above the street side, and the chapel that served as the first left of the altar, you can reach eight feet or three. Jujol will bring the burst and cantilevered over the side street. Must fly five feet, approximately, and is a semi-circle of brick on a stone troncocilíndrica, would not be surprising that he could dispense with most of the iron needed to hold the cantilever. Strained volume side street and dignified. Otherwise it would be one of those streets asymmetrical with a bare wall on one side and houses with shops on the ground floor on the other: it is now one point less monotonous and has an additional reference point is going well.

Above all these intellectual operations building is, above all, a glance. Jujol systematizes all, yes. Working method and order, yes, but the significance of the system, making it a work of architecture, is his inspiration. His art, his poetic words too slippery to many architects the tackle in a manner so frank. Words that seem to exclude the effectiveness, operability of the process that has come to them. It seems as if these operations were a skeleton dress would, of necessity, inspired episodes, fragile and dependent on a personal language, and not transferable.

This building, like almost any other work of inspired architecture, shows that theories are to legitimize constructions, necessarily end up contradict a child who kills his father to be able to express.


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